Assignment 25620

Geologists and other scientists assume that the results of an experiment conducted on a given day will be applicable to events that take place a day, a year, a century, or a million years later. Which concept best fits this example?
a. Uniformitarianism
b. Actualism
c. Catastrophism
d. Principle of original lateral continuity

2. The mineral property cleavage refers to __________.
a. the development of crystal faces during mineral growth
b. the splitting of a mineral along planar surfaces where the atomic bonds are weakest
c. the development of irregular fractures in a mineral where atomic bonds are strongest
d. the density of a mineral
3. The correct order of clastic grain sizes, from smallest to largest, is_______________.
a. gravel, sand, silt, clay
b. silt, clay, gravel, sand
c. clay, silt, sand, gravel
d. clay, silt, gravel, sand

4._____________ would not enhance the preservation of fossil remains.
a. Rapid burial by sediments or extrusive materials
b. Hard parts such as bones, teeth, and shells
c. Presence of oxygen-tolerant bacteria
d. Burial in a low-oxygen environment
5. __________ are the gases, in order of abundance from most to least, that make up Earth’s atmosphere.
a. Carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen
b. Nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen
c. Nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide
d. Oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide
6. Deserts and arid basins contain all of the characteristics below except__________.
a. varves
b. alluvial fans
c. dunes
d. caliche
7. A(n) _______ is the set of characteristics of strata that formed in a particular environment.
a. unconformity
b. facies
c. sequence
d. type section
8. The use of ash falls, glacial tills, and evaporite beds are examples of units used in ______.
a. seismic stratigraphy
b. event stratigraphy
c. isotope stratigraphy
d. biostratigraphy
9. An index fossil has some or all of the following desirable characteristics except ___________.
a. it is abundant enough in the stratigraphic record to be found easily.
b. it is easily distinguished from other taxa.
c. it is geographically widespread and thus can be used to correlate rocks over a large area.
d. it has a wide stratigraphic range that represents a lot of time
10. Why is convergence convincing evidence that evolutionary changes are adaptive?
a. Two unrelated species that resemble one another in form so that they also live in the same way is unlikely to be an accident.
b. Two related species do not resemble one another in form but they also live in the same way.
c. The primary agents of convergence are the ecological factors that normally govern the sizes of populations in nature.
d. Genetic mutation and the generation of new gene combinations by sexual reproduction work different in different animals that live in the same way.
11. _______________ are the most abundant minerals on Earth.
a. Carbonates
b. Silicates
c. Sulfates
d. Oxides
12. Trace fossils are_________.
a. fossilized imprints of soft-bodied animals or plants
b. segmented worms that existed during the late Precambrian
c. fossilized tracks, trails, burrows, and nests made by ancient animals
d. small bits or remnants of the hard body parts of ancient marine animals